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Table 1 Forms of power in relation to elements of participation (authors’ elaboration)

From: Whose knowledge, whose values? An empirical analysis of power in transdisciplinary sustainability research

Element of participation/dimension of powerWho (subjects)
Refers to the actors interacting
What (objects)
Refers to the agenda of interactions
How (procedures)
Refers to the rules of interactions
InstrumentalWho decides who participates and who directly influences this decision?Who sets the agenda of the process?Who sets the rules of the process and controls their enactment?
StructuralIn what ways do structural conditions predetermine the selection and participation of actors?In what ways do structural conditions circumscribe the issues which enter the agenda?In what ways do structural conditions predetermine the formats of participation?
DiscursiveIn reference to which norms and ideas are actors selected and positioned in the process?How do ideas and norms shape the framing of issues and agendas?To what norms, ideas, or standards do the formats of participation allude?
SourcesIdeational and material
ActorsFunding body, researchers, practitioners