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Table 1 Full range of affordances of scenario planning. Source: author

From: Scenarios in the strategy process: a framework of affordances and constraints

Intended effecter affordanceConstraints
 • Dealing with uncertainty and ambiguity
 • Assessment of multiple possible future scenarios
 • Enhancing firm performance
• Bounded rationality: lack of information; impossible consideration of all possible scenarios; unclear probabilities, …
• Biased cognition: selective attention, subjective interpretations, and biased probability estimates due to personal experiences, values, and personality traits, …
• Beliefs about the future: ego- or time-moving frame; locus of control; openness of the future; determinist, voluntarist, or pure-chance-worldview; foreseeableness of the future, …
  Hidden effecter affordances Hidden handling affordances
 • Strategy-related: fostering attention to environmental dynamics; fostering analytic, procedural, causal, complex, and systemic thinking; improving decision making (quality); raising probability for an innovation strategy; improving strategy execution; enabling strategic change and organizational learning, …
 • Organization-related: fostering cross-level and cross-functional communication; improving group cohesion and motivation, …
• Selection of scenario planning participants: including and excluding specific scenario developers, …
• Execution of scenario planning: private, collaborative, or negotiating execution, …
• Feeding scenarios into the strategy development: over- and underemphasizing scenarios and their probabilities, …