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Table 2 Innovation system functions (based on the work of Hekkert et al. [48]) in the different scenarios

From: Innovation policy and international relations: directions for EU diplomacy

Functions Populism and protectionism Innovation as global public good Bottom-up innovation
1. Entrepreneurial discovery - Strong focus on national industry capabilities and collaboration
- Protective/defensive against foreign attacks on IPR, markets, human resources, etc.
- Develop international value networks
- Develop strong localized ecosystems in international context
- Focus on entrepreneurship
- Learning by doing/using
- Generic ecosystem-oriented policies
- Local needs and initiatives
- Activism
2. Knowledge development - Not a high priority
- Training/skills in existing industries
- Strengthening “open science” and international collaborative programs
- Seeking complementarities
- Broad science and technology education
3. Knowledge diffusion (networks) - Support for diffusion in national industries
- Seeking international collaboration only in function of national strengths
- Exchange programs
- Sharing IPR etc. in collaborative ventures
- Business led diffusion in sectoral or regional ecosystems
- International diffusion in function of building markets
4. Guidance of the search (role of national priority setting) - Nationally defined and supported missions
- International intelligence
- Focus on global challenges thinking
- Benchmark international competitiveness
- No strong guidance
5. Market formation - Transactional approach to international access to markets
- Self-interest guides taxation, regulation and standards
- Nationally oriented public procurement
- Global public and public/private initiatives
- Work towards a global “level-playing-field” in business led innovation
- Business led and user-led
- Allow for experimentation
- Allow new models (e.g. sharing, buy local)
- Focus on international market access
6. Resources mobilization (budgets, finance) - Likely decline
- Entirely driven by national interests and policy goals
- International collaboration and pooling of resources
- Strengthening of global governance institutions
- No strong national or international directive resources policies
- Generic human capital strategies
7. Creation of legitimacy; fighting resistance to change - May range from anti-innovation attitude (reduced innovation policy actions) to aggressive national interest strategy - Building support for global challenges
- Spreading innovation thinking and behaviour (including values and policies)
- Business led (policy focus on boundary conditions)
- Actions related to opening markets
- Support socialization