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Table 5 Possible software-based futures and potential relations to smart energy systems

From: Future smart energy software houses

Software enablers, software-based pictures of futures, and software-enabled scenario paths Potential relations to smart energy (electricity) systems futures
Fog computing Fog computing represents the future computing infrastructures that have at least the same potential to revolutionize the software development than Cloud computing. - SGAM can be seen to become or represent a true Fog computing infrastructure where third-party software solutions can then be applied in smart energy systems.
- Fog computing opens new possibilities for more real-time applications that are critical for many energy systems.
- Flexible and dynamic computing environment will make the smart energy systems more self-adaptive.
- Fog computing enables new possibilities of third-party companies to execute their software in smart grid environment.
- From computing perspective, Fog computing can be seen as basis for the modernization of the electricity networks.
Human data model (PF1) From raw data to programmable abstractions with human data model - Human data model allows new types of multi-directional connections and digital services to be integrated as part of future energy systems.
- Together with the human data model and its high-level sensations (based on the DIKW-pyramid), software following the IoP manifesto’s principles could truly help the end-users (customers) to contribute and help them build and customize their own energy consumption.
- Human data model is our solution for applying PCS computing to smart grids.
- Human data model enables refining data coming from multi-modal sources so that it can be used in the smart energy system’s software (i.e., HDM enables tracking human behavior).
Internet of People Internet of People principles for more human-centric interactions with the IoT - Software based on the IoP manifesto principles will help making the future electricity systems truly smart.
(PF2) Personalized, proactive temperature adjustment based on the preferences of the people - Human data model enables implementing software that follows IoP manifesto principles to be integrated with smart grids.
(PF3) Proactively selling energy for the local community - Human data model will enable the prosumer’s solar and wind power system to predict the prosumers and customers behavior.
(PF4) Collective commuting with electric cars - Smart grids flavored with new software capabilities can be seen as key enabling technology towards peer-to-peer energy economy.
  - With the new technical devices and software systems, the user behavior is possible to observe and possibly even to predict to some point for energy saving purposes.
- IoP-based software solutions will help also the energy systems to serve the users in more personalized ways.
- Proactive software will have the possibility to affect the end-user energy consumption.
- Prosumers contribute with their data to help balancing the smart grids’ capacity.
- The new software-based solutions will help saving energy.