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Table 1 Representative possible pictures of futures and their software-related developments

From: Future smart energy software houses

Pictures of futures (exhibits) Potential software relations
Network operation includes full observability and controllability of the low voltage (LV) network through the smart meters or advanced equipment in the secondary substations [22] • Intelligent Electrical Devices (IED) in the networks embed more software.
• The network operations and management systems incorporate more software functionality.
Automated DR systems [25] • DSOs have new operation systems to control and balance the grid loads.
• New energy market solutions (e.g., dynamic pricing) are implemented as software applications.
Wind and solar power production will increase considerably [20] • Software algorithms are used to maintain the electricity network frequency balance.
• Transmission system operators (TSO) and DSOs utilize advanced software systems (e.g., DMS) to connect, operate and govern the new distributed energy resources.
• Additional data sources are incorporated (e.g., weather forecasts).
Electrical vehicles (EV) for energy storage [53] • Smart two-way charging infrastructures are software-controlled.
• Their related customer services (e.g., payments) and information systems are software-based.
• Network storage systems are software.