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Table 5 Costs and benefits from the different measure packages in the recommendation scenario

From: CO2 reduction costs and benefits in transport: socio-technical scenarios

Measure package Total costs; specifications Total monetary benefits; specifications CO2 emission reductions and unit costs
Urban form, walking, cycling and public transport 11,100 M€; 510 M€ annually to infrastructure projects, mobility management, increasing service level of public transport and uptake of buses using alternative energy 14,300 M€; 3900 M€ health benefits + 4000 M€ reduction in new vehicle purchase costs + 3900 M€ reduction in fixed costs of cars, approx. 1000 €/car/year + 2500 M€ energy savings 18.6 Mt, − 172 €/t
Car-sharing and ride-sharing 1000 M€; Systems required for car-sharing and ride-sharing, later automated cars, approx. 1000 €/car/year 9300 M€; 4000 M€ reduction in new vehicle purchase costs + 3900 M€ reduction in fixed costs of cars, approx. 1000 €/car/year + 1400 M€ energy savings 8.7 Mt, − 954 €/t
Cars with reduced energy consumption 3500 M€; Increased purchase costs of energy efficient cars, cost increase from 0 € to 5000 € during 2022–2050 1100 M€; Energy savings 7.1 Mt, 338 €/t
Cars exploiting alternative energy 800 M€; 600 M€ increased purchase costs of plug-in hybrid, battery electric and hydrogen cars + 200 M€ investments in energy infrastructure 4.5 Mt, 178 €/t emissions increase in the energy sector because of biogas, electricity and hydrogen production 3.6 Mt (BAU: 4.6 Mt)
Alternative fuels 400 M€; Higher price of alternative fuels 7.1 Mt, 56 €/t emissions increase in the energy sector because of ethanol and renewable diesel production 5.9 Mt (BAU: 5.7 Mt)
Energy efficiency in road freight vehicles 2500 M€; Energy efficient trucks and vans 1000 M€; Energy savings 9.3 Mt, 161 €/t
Alternative energy in freight transport 1900 M€; 600 M€ higher price of renewable diesel + 1300 M€ LBG and infrastructure for marine freight transport 12.2 Mt, 156 €/t emissions increase in the energy sector because of renewable diesel production 9.0 Mt (BAU: 4.2 Mt)
Total 21,200 M€ 24,700 M€ 68 Mt, −52 €/t