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Table 1 Mitigation policies and examples of measures in passenger and freight transport (based on [23, 27, 37])

From: CO2 reduction costs and benefits in transport: socio-technical scenarios

Mitigation policy Behavioural measures Technological measures
Reducing transport activity Densifying urban structure
Restructuring supply chains
Replacing physical transport with ICT
Improving the efficiency of vehicle routing
Promoting modal shift Mobility management
Affecting the relative competitiveness of transport modes
Improving public transport, walking and cycling infrastructure
Improving infrastructure for intermodal transport
Improving energy efficiency Increasing passenger occupancy rates
Improving vehicle utilisation on laden trips and level of backhaulage
Eco-driving
Reducing vehicle energy consumption
Reducing carbon intensity of energy Using vehicles exploiting alternative energy (electricity, hydrogen, biofuels) Substituting oil-based fuels with biofuels, electricity or hydrogen