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Table 1 Mitigation policies and examples of measures in passenger and freight transport (based on [23, 27, 37])

From: CO2 reduction costs and benefits in transport: socio-technical scenarios

Mitigation policy Behavioural measures Technological measures
Reducing transport activity Densifying urban structure Restructuring supply chains Replacing physical transport with ICT Improving the efficiency of vehicle routing
Promoting modal shift Mobility management Affecting the relative competitiveness of transport modes Improving public transport, walking and cycling infrastructure Improving infrastructure for intermodal transport
Improving energy efficiency Increasing passenger occupancy rates Improving vehicle utilisation on laden trips and level of backhaulage Eco-driving Reducing vehicle energy consumption
Reducing carbon intensity of energy Using vehicles exploiting alternative energy (electricity, hydrogen, biofuels) Substituting oil-based fuels with biofuels, electricity or hydrogen