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Table 1 Key elements of the relationship between media and politics in the litany layer

From: The application of causal layered analysis to understand the present conditions and possible futures of media and politics in Iran

Key elements Mainstream Alternative
Media ownership State monopoly in broadcasting
State-owned press
State-owned media infrastructure
State-owned national data network
Private and commercial ownership in press media
Foreign ownership in digital and social media
Media control Licensing and license detention
Filtering
Parasites
Restrictions on broadband infrastructures
VPNs, anti-filters, and other internet proxies
Satellite television channels
Underground publications
Media content production Traditionalist
Islamist
Anti-Western
Secular
Modernist
Pro-Western
Semi-nationalist