Skip to main content

Table 1 Innovation system functions and potential innovation diplomacy actions

From: Exploring the future of innovation diplomacy

Innovation System Function Relevant Dimensions Innovation Diplomacy Actions (examples)
1. Entrepreneurial discovery Capacity to turn potential of new knowledge, technology, networks, and markets into business opportunities. Support industry in development of (global) innovation networks, value chains, etc.
Promote and protect national champion projects and industries.
2. Knowledge development Institutions and resources for education, skills development and research (universities, research facilities). Including less formal learning such as “learning by doing”. Support international collaborative research and education.
Support IPR.
Access to strategic research facilities.
3. Knowledge diffusion through networks Maximise the effects of new knowledge, feed policy processes for standards and regulation. Support development of an innovation culture.
Develop strategy for inclusion/exclusion (e.g. non-proliferation for security reasons).
4. Guidance of the search Selection of specific foci for investments in STI. Building the long-term vision. Identifying needs and wants. Priority setting. Mostly done between different types of actors in a country, region or hub. Identify potential collaborators and competitor’s strategies.
Develop position and strategy for common or global challenges.
Develop vision and strategy for national strengths.
5. Market formation Create or support (public) demand (e.g. favourable tax regime, innovative procurement).
Create a (protected) space for testing, piloting and possibly niche markets.
Strategies to improve access to foreign markets for innovative products/services:
- Import/export tariffs
- Innovation mercantilism
- Room for experimentation (legal and regulatory conditions)
6. Resources mobilisation Capital availability in different stages of innovation. Human resources (including foreign specialists). - Access to Public Private Partnerships
- Exchange programs
- Special mobility and tax-rules for knowledge workers.
7. Creation of legitimacy; fighting resistance to change Build coalitions. How to deal with vested interests and frictions of transition? Is new legal framework required? - Standards
- Policy consistency (e.g. GMOs)
- Responsible Research and Innovation rules