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Table 1 Overview of tools and aspects addressed in the reviewed literature

From: Methods for assessing future scenarios from a sustainability perspective

Case study Tools Environmental aspects considered Social aspects considered ICT? Time frame
Arushanyan et al. (2017) [31] SAFS Land, water, chemicals, mineral and energy use, GHG emissions Participation and influence in society, health conditions, equity and justice, social cohesion, and learning and education Yes 2060
Martire et al. (2015) [32] SIA Energy use, GHG, air pollution Employment No 2020
König et al. (2013) [33] FoPIA Abiotic resources (water, soil), biotic resources (biodiversity), ecosystems (land, soil, water) Work, quality of life (health, life expectancy, income), food security No Between 2015 and 2030 depending on case study
Baard et al. (2012) [34] Checklists, qualitative mapping of consequences, Goal conflict analysis, CBA GHG emissions biodiversity, coastal defense and land use Health and safety, working life, housing, equity No Two planning horizons: 2030 and 2060
Kowalski et al. (2009) [35] Qualitative mapping, LCA, PMCA Climate change Air quality, Rational use of resources, water quality. Cumulated energy input Cumulated material input
Phosphorus Nitrogen AOX
Security of supply
Regional self-determinacy, social cohesion, employment, effect on public spending, import dependency, noise, quality of landscape, social justice, ecological justice. No 2020
Svenfelt et al. in Fauré (2016) [36] Goal conflict analysis Swedish Environmental Quality Objectives   No 2060
Swedish Energy Agency (2016) [37] Goal conflict analysis Impacts on forests and agricultural land, emissions to air and water, impact on ecosystems, bird species, chemical and toxic substances released in the environment   No 2035 and towards 2050
Sheate et al. (2008) [38] Qualitative impact assessment Biodiversity, protection of natural resources, energy Health, equity, culture No 2030
Cartmell et al. (2006) [39] Qualitative impact assessment Environmental performance and Flexibility Economic performance, Social impact, No n.s
Tzanopolous et al. (2011) [40] NA, qualitative impact assessment Biodiversity, natural resources Education, health and elderly care, cultural heritage, with the addition of local development, local participation and institutional efficiency. No Approx. 2035
Boron et al. (2016) [41] NA, qualitative impact assessment To conserve species richness and diversity, maintain ecosystem services, maintain ecosystem resilience to climate change and natural disasters, connectivity Better healthcare, education and housing, to improve security, human rights and social equity, maintain food security and farming cultural heritage. to increase employment and income, increase smallholders potential and competitiveness, increase municipality income, strengthen institutions and law enforcements, increase local participation and conserve native habitats and connectivity. No Approx. 2040
Nilsson et al. (2005) [42] LCA Energy consumption, global warming potential, ozone layer depletion, photochemical oxidation, acidification, eutrophication, freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity, marine aquatic ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, and human toxicity   No 2008
Bouvart et al. (2011) [43] LCA GHG emissions, energy consumption, NOx, SOx   No 2020–2050
Chen et al. (2012) [44] LCA Global warming (GWP), abiotic depletion, acidification, eutrophication, freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity, ozone depletion, photochemical ozone creation or summer smog, terrestrial ecotoxicity.   No n.s.
Dandres et al. (2012) [45] M-LCA Human health, global warming, natural resources, ecosystems   No 2005–2025
Santoyo- Castelazo and Azapagic (2014) [46] LCA, MCA Same as in Chen et al. above Security and diversity of supply; public acceptability, intergenerational issues No 2050
Gujba et al. (2011) [47] LCA GHG emissions   No 2030
Malmodin and Bergmark (2015) [48] LCA GHG emissions   Yes 2030
Münster et al. (2013) [49] LCA GHG emissions Renewable energy   No Two case studies (2030; and 2050)
Björklund (2012) [50] LCA Climate change
Photochemical oxidation
  No n.s.
Singh and Strømman (2013) [51] LCA GHG, NOx, SO2, particulate matter   No 2012–2020
Berrill et al. (2016) [52] LCA GHG emissions, land use and use of non-renewable resources.   No 2050
Foolmaun and Ramjeeawon (2013) [53] S-LCA, LCA Carcinogens, res- piratory organics, respiratory inorganics, climate change, radiation, ecotoxicity, ozone layer, acidification/eutrophica- tion, land use, mineral and fossil fuel Child labour, fair salary, forced labour, health and safety, social benefit/social security, discrimination, contribution to economic development and community engagement No n.s.
Rugani et al. (2015) [54] S-LCA   Child Labour
Collective bargaining
Drinking water quality
Excessive working time
Forced Labour
Gender Equity
High Conflict
Hospital Beds
Improved Sanitation
Indigenous Rights
Injuries and Fatalities
Legal System
Migrant labour
Poverty Wage
Toxic and Hazards
No 2010–2025
Stamford and Azapagic (2014) [55] LCSA Recyclability of inputs, water toxicity, GWP, ozone layer, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidant, land occupation, terrestrial toxicity, were considered, and on the social side employment, work injuries, human toxicity, health, fatalities, avoiding imports, diversity fuel mix, fuel storage, handling of uranium, resource use, radioactive waste. Employment, work injuries, human toxicity, health, fatalities, avoiding imports, diversity fuel mix, fuel storage, handling of uranium, resource use, radioactive waste. No 2070
Wijkman and Skånberg (2015) [56] I-O analysis GHG emissions Employment No 2030
Anderson et al. (2008) [57] MCA, value rose chart Habitat change/conversion
Land take/release
Atmospheric deposition
Resource extraction
Waste management
Risk to the natural environment
Water quantity
Eco-centric culture
Social exclusion & inequality
Impacts on poorer countries
Cultural diversity
No 2050
Onat et al. (2016) [58] MCA Carbon, water, energy, hazardous waste, fishery, grazing, forestry, cropland, CO2 uptake land Taxes and injuries. No n.s.
López et al. (2012) [59] MCA CO2 and PM/NOx emissions, noise Transport safety and equity, accessibility and employment No 2030
Hickman et al. (2012) [60] MCA Noise, Vibration and air quality Accessibility, safety and access to jobs No 2030
Streimikiene et al. (2016) [61] MCA Contribution of renewable energy, climate change and other emissions, waste treatment and natural local conditions Social welfare (jobs, economic security), education, energy, culture and public acceptance No n.s.
Karami et al. (2017) [62] SD   Perceived wellbeing, Quality of life, Social structure development, Rural and agricultural economic conditions, Conservation of community resources. No n.s.
Hilty et al. (2006) [63] SD GHG emissions   Yes 2020
Ahmadi Achachlouei and Hilty (2015) [64] SD Total energy consumption, share of electricity generation from renewable resources, GHG emissions, municipal solid waste not recycled.   Yes 2020
Ljunggren Söderman et al. (2016) [65] EMEC, LCA Climate change, ozone depletion, human toxicity, Photochemical oxidant formation, Particulate matter formation, Ionising radiation, Terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, Marine eutrophication, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, marine ecotoxicity, agricultural land occupation, urban land occupation, natural land transformation, water depletion, metal depletion, fossil depletion   No 2030
IPCC (Riahi et al. (2011) [66] van vuuren et al. (2011) [67], Thomson et al. (2011) [68]) Integrated models GHG and short-lived species including CO2, CH4, N2O, NOx, VOCs, CO, SO2, carbonaceous aerosols, HFCs, PFCs, NH3, and SF6.   No 2010–2100
  1. n.s: not specified in the paper